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HCG (Human chorionic gonadotropin)

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Place of Origin: china
Price: Negotiable
Packaging Details: 5000IU/vial, 5vials/kit
Delivery Time: 5-7 days
Payment Terms: Western Union, Paypal or Bank Transfer(T/T)
MOQ: 1 kit
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HCG (Human chorionic gonadotropin)

Structure: Human chorionic gonadotropin is a glycoprotein composed of 244 amino acids with a molecular mass of 36.7 kDa.

It is heterodimeric, with an α (alpha) subunit identical to that of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and β (beta) subunit that is unique to hCG.

The α (alpha) subunit is 92 amino acids long. The sequence of the alpha unit can be found on UniProtKB with ID: P01215[25-116].

The β-subunit of hCG gonadotropin contains 145 amino acids, encoded by six highly homologous genes that are arranged in tandem and inverted pairs on chromosome 19q13.3 - CGB (1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8). The sequence of the beta unit can be found on UniProtKB with ID: P01233.

The two subunits create a small hydrophobic core surrounded by a high surface area-to-volume ratio: 2.8 times that of a sphere. The vast majority of the outer amino acids are hydrophilic.

FunctionHuman chorionic gonadotropin interacts with the LHCG receptor and promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum during the beginning of pregnancy, causing it to secrete the hormone progesterone. Progesterone enriches the uterus with a thick lining of blood vessels and capillaries so that it can sustain the growing fetus. Due to its highly negative charge, hCG may repel the immune cells of the mother, protecting the fetus during the first trimester. It has also been hypothesized that hCG may be a placental link for the development of local maternal immunotolerance. For example, hCG-treated endometrial cells induce an increase in T cell apoptosis (dissolution of T cells). These results suggest that hCG may be a link in the development of peritrophoblastic immune tolerance, and may facilitate the trophoblast invasion, which is known to expedite fetal development in the endometrium.[8] It has also been suggested that hCG levels are linked to the severity of morning sickness in pregnant women.

Because of its similarity to LH, hCG can also be used clinically to induce ovulation in the ovaries as well as testosterone production in the testes. As the most abundant biological source is women who are presently pregnant, some organizations collect urine from pregnant women to extract hCG for use in fertility treatment.

Human chorionic gonadotropin also plays a role in cellular differentiation/proliferation and may activate apoptosis.

ProductionLike other gonadotropins, hCG can be extracted from urine or by genetic modification. Pregnyl, Follutein, Profasi, Choragon and Novarel use the former method, derived from the urine of pregnant women. Ovidrel, on the other hand, is a product of recombinant DNA. hCG is produced from the syncytiotrophoblast cell layer.

HCG formsTotal hCG, C-terminal peptide total hCG, intact hCG, free ß-subunit hCG, ß-core fragment hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG, nicked hCG, alpha hCG, pituitary hCG.

MethodolgyhCG immunoassays are based on the sandwich principal and labeled with an enzyme, dye, or chemilluminescence. Pregnancy urine dipstick principle based on lateral flow technique.

Testing Levels of hCG may be measured in the blood or urine. Most commonly, this is done as a pregnancy test, intended to indicate the presence or absence of an implanted embryo. Testing for hCG may also be done when diagnosing or monitoring germ cell tumors and gestational trophoblastic disease.

Concentrations are commonly reported in thousandth international units per milliliter (mIU/ml). The international unit of hCG was originally established in 1938 and has been redefined in 1964 and in 1980.[12] At the present time, 1 international unit is equal to approximately 2.35×10-12 moles, or about 6×10-8 grams.

Most tests employ a monoclonal antibody, which is specific to the β-subunit of hCG (β-hCG). This procedure is employed to ensure that tests do not make false positives by confusing hCG with LH and FSH. (The latter two are always present at varying levels in the body, whereas the presence of hCG almost always indicates pregnancy.)

The urine test may be a chromatographic immunoassay or any of several other test formats, home-, physician's office-, or laboratory-based.[15] Published detection thresholds range from 20 to 100 mIU/ml, depending on the brand of test. Early in pregnancy, more accurate results may be obtained by using the first urine of the morning (when hCG levels are highest). When the urine is dilute (specific gravity less than 1.015), the hCG concentration may not be representative of the blood concentration, and the test may be falsely negative.

The serum test, using 2-4 mL of venous blood, is typically a chemiluminescent or fluorimetric immunoassay that can detect βhCG levels as low as 5 mIU/ml and allows quantification of the βhCG concentration. The ability to quantitate the βhCG level is useful in the monitoring germ cell and trophoblastic tumors, followup care after miscarriage, and in diagnosis of and follow-up care after treatment of ectopic pregnancy. The lack of a visible fetus on vaginal ultrasound after the βhCG levels have reached 150,000 mIU/ml is strongly indicative of an ectopic pregnancy.

As pregnancy tests, quantitative blood tests and the most sensitive urine tests usually detect hCG between 6 to 12 days after ovulation. However, it must be taken into account that total hCG levels may vary in a very wide range within the first 4 weeks of gestation, leading to false results during this period of time.

Gestational trophoblastic disease like Hydatidiform moles ("molar pregnancy") or Choriocarcinoma may produce high levels of βhCG (due to the presence of syncytialtrophoblasts- part of the villi that make up the placenta) despite the absence of an embryo. This, as well as several other conditions, can lead to elevated hCG readings in the absence of pregnancy.

hCG levels are also a component of the triple test, a screening test for certain fetal chromosomal abnormalities/birth defects.

Reference levelsThe following is a list of serum hCG levels. (LMP is the last menstrual period dated from the first day of your last period.) The levels grow exponentially after conception and implantation.

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